Volume 5, Issue 10 (10-2017)                   ifej 2017, 5(10): 22-31 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Zamani M, Nikooy M, Pourbabaei H, Naghdi R, Moradipour L. Effect of Road Age on Identification of Ecological Species Groups and Environmental Factors Affecting them in Western Forests of Guilan Province . ifej 2017; 5 (10) :22-31
URL: http://ifej.sanru.ac.ir/article-1-157-en.html
Abstract:   (2712 Views)

Forest roads can create small- scale climate change. These changes can vary with the road age and topographic conditions. This study aimed to identify ecological species group as well as study the relationship between vegetation and environmental factors based on the road age. The study was carried out in three-districts of Nav- Asalem in Watershed 7 of forests of North of Iran. Therefore, 140 sample plats (rectangular in shape and150 m2 in area) with different ages and different topographic conditions were taken. Information related to tree and shrub cover, regeneration and weed cover along with slope (%) and slope aspect of sample plots, road age and elevation, as well as the amount of light receiving to forest floor, temperature and humidity at the center of the sample plots were recorded. The ecological group distribution pattern was evaluated using non-limited ordination method and classification of ecological groups was performed using Two Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) and CCA gradient analysis. Data analysis was carried out using Excel and PC-ORD software. The results of the analysis of indicator species showed that of 72 plant species, only 52 species were determined as indicator species that were defined as indicator species of beech communities on roadside. In this research, newly constructed roads (with age below 10 years) occurred in second and fourth ecological species groups, roads with moderate ages (10-20 years in age) in the third ecological group and older roads (with age more than 20 years) in the first ecological species group. The results of MRPP analysis (multi-response permutation procedure) showed that the ecological groups are characterized by higher distance from each other. Among the ecological groups, the abundance and presence or absence of species with environmental variables were not the same in all sample plots. The final results showed that the road age not only affects the ecological species group but it also serves as a useful factor in determining the indicator species and improving the results of the ordination of the ecological species group on the roads with age more than several years.

Full-Text [PDF 1593 kb]   (730 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: اکولوژی جنگل
Received: 2017/06/22 | Accepted: 2018/06/19 | Published: 2018/10/10

1. Ahmad, S.S. 2010. Deterended correspondence analysis of vegetation along motorway (M-2), Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 42(4): 2473-2477.
2. Akay, A.E. O. Erdas, M. Reis and A. Yuksel. 2008. Estimating sediment yield from a forest road network by using a sediment prediction model and GIS techniques, Building and Environment, 43(3): 687-695. [DOI:10.1016/j.buildenv.2007.01.047]
3. Anonymous, L. 2008. Revised forest plan series one, two and three Asalem Nave Guilan. 70 pp (In Persian).
4. Avon, C., L. Berges, Y. Dumas and J.L. Dupouey. 2010. Does the effect of forest roads extend a few meters or more into the adjacent forest? A study on understory plant diversity in manage oak stands, 259(8): 1546-1555. [DOI:10.1016/j.foreco.2010.01.031]
5. Berengi tehrani, F.B., H. Majnonyan, A. Abdi and GH. Amiri. 2014. Effects of forest roads on the diversity of plant species, organic matter and organic carbon content (Case Study: Forest Kheiroud). Journal of forest sustainable development, 1(1): 102-112 (In Persian).
6. Bowering, M and V.P. Marshal. 2006. Effects of forest road on the growth of adjacent lodgeopole pine trees. Journal of Forest, 36(4): 919-929. [DOI:10.1139/x05-300]
7. Cameron, E.K. and E.M. Bayne. 2009. Road age and its importance in earthworm invasion of northern boreal forests. Journal of Applied Ecology, 46(1): 28-36. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01535.x]
8. Deljooei, A., E. Abdi, B. Majnounian and H. Sohrabi. 2013. Do forest roads have significant effect on tree regeneration? Case study: Hyrcanian Forest. Journal of Forest and Wood Product, 3:121-130. (In Persian)
9. El-Sheikh, M.A., G.A. Abbadi and P.M. Bianco. 2010. Vegetation ecology of phytogenic hillocks (nabkhas) in coastal habitats of Jal Az-zor National Park, Kuwait, Role of patches and edaphic factors. Flora-Morphology. Distribution Functional Ecology of Plants, 205(12): 832-840. [DOI:10.1016/j.flora.2010.01.002]
10. Enoki, T., B Kusumoto, S. Igarashi and K. Tsuji. 2014. Stand structure and plant species occurrence in forest edge habitat along different aged roads on Okinawa Island, southwestern Japan. Journal of Forestry Research, 19(1): 97-104. [DOI:10.1007/s10310-012-0383-9]
11. Esmailzadeh, O., S.M. Hosseini, M. Tabari and H. Asadi. 2011. Classification system analysis in classification of forest plant communities (Case study: Darkola's beech forest). Journal of Plant Biology, 3(7): 11-28 (In Persian).
12. Esmailzadeh, O. and H. Asadi. 2014. Total Phi Fidelity Index (TPFI) as a new algorithm in plant communitie analysis. Iranian Journal of Forest, 6(2): 215-232 (In Persian).
13. Esmailzadeh, A. and S.S. Solimani Pour. 2016. Improved results ordination ecological species groups by means of indicator species. Journal of Natural Resources forest and wood products, 69(3): 509-495 (In Persian).
14. Eshaghi Rad, G., Gh. Zahedi Amiri and A. Mataji. 2008. Optimum number of ecological groups in vegetation classification (Case Study: Educational Kheyrud forest near Noshahr). Journal of Iranian Forest and Poplar Research, 16(3): 466-455 (In Persian).
15. Fahimi Pour, A., A. Chahoki and N. tavili. 2010. Evaluation of some indicator species of environmental factors (study of pastures Taleghan). Journal Range and Desert Research Iran, 4(1): 32-23. (In Persian)
16. Ghasemi Aghbash, A. and B. Maleki. 2016. Ecological Effects of Forest Road on Some Growth and Edaphic Variables in Amygdalus scoparia Forest Reserve. Dehloran-ZarinAbaad. Ecology of Iranian Forests, 3(6): 1-8.(In Persian)
17. Gullison, R.E.; S.N. Panfil, J.J. Strouse and S.P. Hubell. 2006. Ecology and management of mahogany (Swietenia Macrophylla King) in the Chimanes Forest Beni Bolivia. Bot Journal Linnean Soc, 122(1): 9-34. [DOI:10.1111/j.1095-8339.1996.tb02060.x]
18. Harper, E.B. and D.S. Raymond. 2007. Density dependence in the terrestrial life history stage of two anurans. Oecologia, 153(4): 879-889. [DOI:10.1007/s00442-007-0796-x]
19. Heidari, M. 2013. The effect of human intervention and management of ground vegetation composition and soil seed bank in forest ecosystems of Zagros city of Ilam. PhD thesis, University of Guilan, Somehsara, Iran. 252 pp (In Persian).
20. Jafari, C., D. Tabari, Q.M. Hosseini and Y. Kooch. 2013. Soil factors affecting the biological diversity of plant species in ecological groups in a forest preserve in North Khorasan. Journal of Plant Iranian Biology, 28(1): 31-20 (In Persian).
21. Jangman, R.H.G., C.J.G. TerBreak and O.F.R .Van Tongeren. 1995. Data Analysis in Community and Landscape Ecololgy. Pudoc Wageningen, 350 pp. [DOI:10.1017/CBO9780511525575]
22. Kashian, D.M., B.V. Barnes and W.S. Walker. 2003. Ecological species groups of landform-level ecosystems dominated by jack pine in northern Lower Michigan, USA. Plant Ecology, 166: 75-91. [DOI:10.1023/A:1023265012964]
23. Kakrpdy, K. 2001. Description and analysis of vegetation, translation, Mesdaghi, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 287 pp.
24. Makineci, E., S.G. Beyza and M. Demir. 2008. Survived herbaceous plant species on compacted skid road in a fir (Abies born mulleriana Mattf.) forest-A note. Transportation Research Part. Transport and Environment, 13(3): 187-192.‌ [DOI:10.1016/j.trd.2008.01.002]
25. Mataji, A., Gh. Zahedi Amiri and E. Asri. 2009. Analysis of vegetation communities and its relationship with soil physical and chemical conditions in natural forests. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar, 17(1): 85-98 (In Persian).
26. McKinney, M.L. 2001. Effects of human population, area, and time on nonnative plant and fish diversity in the United States. Biological Conservation, 100: 243-252. [DOI:10.1016/S0006-3207(01)00027-1]
27. McKinney, M.L. 2002. Influence of settlement time, human population, park shape and age, visitation and roads on the number of alien plant species in protected areas in the USA. Diversity and Distributions, 8: 311-318. [DOI:10.1046/j.1472-4642.2002.00153.x]
28. Mirzaee, A. 2004. The effect of road trees (Case Study: Forests Shastkalate Gorgan). M.Sc. Thesis, Gorgan University of Agriculture and Forestry, Gorgan, Iran. 100 pp (In Persian).
29. Mohsennejad, M. 2010. Effect of soil properties and physiographic on the distribution of plant communities (Case Study: Haraz Behrestan summer pastures. Journal of Range, 15(2): 275-262 (In Persian).
30. Naghdi, R., H. Pourbabaei, M. Heidari and M. Nouri. 2014. The Effects of Forest Road on Vegetation and Some Physical and Chemical Properties of Soil, Case Study: Shafarood Forests, District No.2. Ecology of Iranian forests, 2(3): 49-64 (In Persian).
31. Nyandwi, E. 2008. Road edge effect on forest canopy structuer and epiphyte biodiversity in Tropical Mountainous Rainforest. M.Sc. Thesis, Institue for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation in partial fulfilment, Nyungwe Nationnal Park, Rwanda, 156 pp.
32. Olander, P.F., M. Scatena and L. Whendee. 1999. Impacts of disturbance initiated by road construction in a subtropical cloud forest in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Forest Ecology and Management, 109(1): 33-49.‌ [DOI:10.1016/S0378-1127(98)00261-8]
33. Park, S.J., Z. Cheng, H. Yang, EE. Morris, M. Sutherland, B.B.M. Gardener and P.S. Grewal. 2010. Differences in Soil chemical properties with distance to roads and age of development in urban areas. Urban Ecosystems, 13(4): 483-497. [DOI:10.1007/s11252-010-0130-y]
34. Shahini, A. 2011. The effect of light on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of oak seedlings (Case Study: Forest Lowe). MSc Thesis, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Universitry, Gorgan, Iran. 120 pp (In Persian).
35. Tatian, M.R., H. Arzani, M.K. Reihan, M.A. Bahmanyar and H. Jalilvand. 2010. Effect of soil and physiographic factors on ecological plant groups in the eastern Elborz mountain rangeland of Iran. Grassland Science, 56(2): 77-86. [DOI:10.1111/j.1744-697X.2010.00178.x]
36. Tichy, L. and M. Chytry. 2006. Statistical determination of diagnostic species for site groups of unequal size. Journal of Vegetation Science, 17(6): 809-818. [DOI:10.1111/j.1654-1103.2006.tb02504.x]
37. Torabi, M., A. Najafi, S.M. Hosseini and M. Moafi. 2009. Biodiversity and density of tree regeneration in the trench excavation and embankment of forest roads. Forest National Conference, Karaj, Iran, 26 pp (In Persian).
38. Yin, S., Z. Shen, P. Zhou, X. Zou, S. Che and W. Wang. 2011. Quantifying air pollution attenuation within urban parks: An experimental approach in Shanghai China. Environmental Pollution, 159(8): 2155-2163. [DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2011.03.009]
39. Yousefi, S. 2011. Geomorphological factors affecting the level of destruction caused by the construction of forest roads. M.Sc. Thesis, Tarbiat Modarres University, Noor, Iran. 81 pp (In Persian).
40. Zadsar, Z., SH. Shatay, H. Habashi and M. Lotifalian. 2010. The effect of age of forest roads and distance from roads on the diversity of trees and shrubs. M.Sc. Thesis, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Gorgan, Iran. 86 pp (In Persian)
41. Zare, M., A. Zarei and M. Jafari. 2011. Distribution of vegetation in Taleqan. Watershed Research Journal, 3(1): 31-41 (In Persian).
42. Zhang, J.T., Y. Xi and J. Li. 2006. The relationships between environment and plant communities in the iddle part of Taihang Mountain Range North China. Community Ecology, 7(2): 155-163. [DOI:10.1556/ComEc.7.2006.2.3]
43. Zolfagharzadeh, B., A. Najafi and AS. Salehi. 2012. The impact of forest roads on changes in light, temperature and soil properties on the sidelines of the masses. Forestry M.Sc. Thesis, Tarbiat Modarres University Department of Natural Resources, Noor, Iran. 77 pp (In Persian).

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2023 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Ecology of Iranian Forest

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb