Volume 6, Issue 11 (11-2018)                   ifej 2018, 6(11): 21-30 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

ghorbani H, Rahmani R, Aliarab A, karimidoost A. (2018). Trends in Woody Species Diversity Across Different Age Classes of Pinus brutia and Cupressus horizontalis Plantations in Ghapan Region, East of Golestan. ifej. 6(11), 21-30. doi:10.29252/ifej.6.11.21
URL: http://ifej.sanru.ac.ir/article-1-226-en.html
Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
Abstract:   (3818 Views)
Forest degradation influences ecosystem sustainability and reduces plant species diversity. Plantations with coniferous trees in degraded ecosystems help the native species to become established and play a major role in preserving and improving plant diversity. This study aims at measuring and comparing the woody species diversity across different age classes of Pinus brutia and Cupressus horizontalis in Ghapan region, East of Golestan. Plantations were classified in the following age classes: <10, 10-20, and 20-30 years old. Then an area of about 5 ha were chosen for every age class and a number of 30 plots (400 m2) were systematic randomly selected. List of woody species and their density in each sample plot were recorded. Number of woody species was calculated using species richness, expected richness, and Margalef indices; diversity was calculated using Simpson and Shannon-Wiener indices; and evenness was calculated using Camargo and Simpson indices. Analysis of variance showed that the effects of species, age classes, and their interaction were significant. Slicing of interaction effect indicated an outstanding difference of richness, diversity, and evenness indices across the different age classes of Pinus brutia plantations. The difference of expected richness and Margalef, Simpson, and Shannon-Wiener indices were not significant across the different age classes of Cupressus horizontalis plantations. But, the increasing of species richness and evenness of Camargo and Simpson indices were significant across the age classes of <10 and 10–20 years old. Also, it was showed that Pinus brutia plantation is more suitable for establishment and development of woody species than Cupressus horizontalis and therefore it is recommended for future plantations at the study region.
 
 
Full-Text [PDF 1373 kb]   (989 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2018/03/14 | Accepted: 2018/05/14 | Published: 2018/11/3

References
1. Abbasi, H. 1990. Fast-growing trees. Gorgan Jahad-e-Daneshghahi press, 190 pp (In Persian).
2. Afforestation and Parks Office. 1995. Coniferous plantations in the North of Iran. Forests, Range and Watershed Management Organization, 113 pp (In Persian).
3. Ardakani, M.R. 2003. Ecology. Tehran University press, 331 pp (In Persian).
4. Avendaño-Yáñez, M.L., L.R. Sánchez-Velásquez, J.A. Meave and M.R. Pineda-López. 2016. Can Pinus plantations facilitate reintroduction of endangered cloud forest species? Landscape and Ecological Engineering, 12(1): 99-104. [DOI:10.1007/s11355-015-0277-z]
5. Azadi, A., S.M. Hojati, H. Jalilvand and H. Naghavi. 2014. Investigation on soil carbon sequestration and understory biodiversity of hard wood and soft wood plantations of Khoramabad city (Makhmalkoh site). Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 21(4): 702-715 (In Persian).
6. Charkazi, A., M. Amiri, H. Ravanbakhsh and M. Moghadasi. 2016. Examination of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis and Pinus brutia in plantation forests in the Ramian, Golestan province. Journal of Wood and Forest Science and Technology, 23(4): 1-21 (In Persian).
7. Coote, L., L.J. French, K.M. Moore, F.J.G. Mitchell and D.L. Kelly. 2012. Can plantation forests support plant species and communities of semi-natural woodland? Forest Ecology and Management, 283: 86-95. [DOI:10.1016/j.foreco.2012.07.013]
8. Cusack, D. and F. Montagnini. 2004. The role of native species plantations in recovery of understory woody diversity in degraded pasturelands of Costa Rica. Forest Ecology and Management, 188: 1-15. [DOI:10.1016/S0378-1127(03)00302-5]
9. Duncan, R.S. and C.A. Chapman. 2003. Consequences of plantation harvest during tropical forest restoration in Uganda. Forest Ecology and Management, 173: 235-250. [DOI:10.1016/S0378-1127(02)00009-9]
10. Eshaghi Rad, J., P. Ghaffarnejad and A. Banedg Shafiee. 2014. Quantitative evaluation of Pinus nigra plantation and its effect on plant diversity and soil chemical properties of rangeland ecosystems (Case study: Urmia airport plantation). Iranian Journal of Forest, 6(4): 471-482 (In Persian).
11. Fazlolahi, M., A. Najafi, A. Soleimani and A. Sepahvand. 2014. Selection of the Most Suitable Species in Order to Forestation in Southern Zagros Forests using AHP and TOPSIS Techniques. Journal of Ecology of Iranian Forest, 2(4): 45-55 (In Persian).
12. Gara, R. and S. Healey. 2003. The effect of a teak (Tectonia grandis) plantation on the establishment of native species in an abandoned pasture in Costa Rica. Forest Ecology and Management, 176: 497-507. [DOI:10.1016/S0378-1127(02)00235-9]
13. GDMG. (General Directorate of Meteorology Golestan Province). 2013. Twenty years statistics of Ghapan station (In Persian).
14. Gheibi, F., M. Akbarinia and Y. Kooch. 2015. Effect of Alnus subcordata, Acer insigne and Sequoia sempervirens plantations on plant diversity in Hyrcanian forest of Iran. Biodiversitas, 16(1): 10-15. [DOI:10.13057/biodiv/d160102]
15. Gerstner, K., C.F. Dormann, A. Stein, A.M. Manceur and R. Seppelt. 2014. Effects of land use on plant diversity: a global meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Ecology, 51: 1690-1700. [DOI:10.1111/1365-2664.12329]
16. Haghverdi, K. 2015. Influence of endemic and exotic afforestation (Chai Bagh district of Qaemshahr) on biodiversity of plant species and woody regeneration. Journal of Plant Researches, 28(3): 522-534 (In Persian).
17. Hartley, M.J. 2002. Rational and methods for conserving biodiversity in plantation. Forest Ecology and Management, 155: 81-95. [DOI:10.1016/S0378-1127(01)00549-7]
18. Heydari, M., N. Shabanian, M. Zeinivand Zadeh and J. Mirzaei. 2015. Analysis of understory plant composition in hardwoods and conifers plantations and their relation to soil characteristics. Forest Research and Development, 1(2): 155-166 (In Persian).
19. Hill, M.O. and E.W. Jones. 1978. Vegetation changes resulting from afforestation of rough grazings in Caeo forest, South Wales. Journal of Ecology, 66: 433-456. [DOI:10.2307/2259145]
20. Hosseini, S. and V. Hosseini. 2014. Effect of Reforestation with Pinus nigra Arnold, Pinus eldarica Medw. and Cupressus arizonica Greene Species on some Properties of Soil (Case Study: Garan region, Marivan). Journal of Ecology of Iranian Forest, 2(4): 37-44 (In Persian).
21. Irwin, S., S.M. Pedley, L. Coote, A.C. Dietzsch, M.W. Wilson, A. Oxbrough, O. Sweeney, K.M. Moore, R. Martin, D.L. Kelly, F.J.G. Mitchell, T.C. Kelly and J. O'Halloran. 2014. The value of plantation forests for plant, invertebrate and bird diversity and the potential for cross-taxon surrogacy. Biodiversity and Conservation, 23(3): 697-714. [DOI:10.1007/s10531-014-0627-4]
22. Ito, S., M. Nakagawa, G.P. Buckley and K. Nogami. 2003. Species richness in sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) plantations in southeastern Kyushu, Japan. Journal of Forest Research, 8: 49-57. [DOI:10.1007/s103100300005]
23. Ito, S., R. Nakayama and G.P. Buckley. 2004. Effects of previous land-use on plant species diversity in semi natural and plantation forests in warm temperate region in southern Kyushu, Japan. Forest Ecology and Management, 196: 213-235. [DOI:10.1016/j.foreco.2004.02.050]
24. Johansson, O., C. Fries, B. Pettersson and P. Simonsson. 2009. Silvicultural models to maintain and restore natural stand structures in Swedish boreal forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 255: 2677-2688.
25. Kanowski, J., C.P. Catterall and J. Wardell. 2005. Consequences of broadscale timber plantations for biodiversity in cleared rainforest landscapes of tropical and subtropical Australia. Forest Ecology and Management, 208: 359-372. [DOI:10.1016/j.foreco.2005.01.018]
26. Khormali, F. and S. Shamsi. 2009. Study quality and micromorphology of soil evolution in land use in loess slops East Golestan province (Case study: Ghapan). Journal of Agriculture science and natural resources, 16(3): 1-12 (In Persian).
27. Krebs, Ch. 1989. Ecological methodology. Harper Collins Publisher, 654 pp.
28. Kryshen, A.M. 2000. Dynamics of vascular plant diversity at the initial states of reforestation after clear cutting of secondary spruce stand. Proceeding of disturbance dynamics in boreal forests with the main theme: Restoration and management of biodiversity. Finland, Aug 28, 21-25.
29. Li, Y., D. Zou, B. Ren, X. Ding, H. Bian and J. Wang. 2016. Balancing effect of Larch plantations (Larix kaempferi) on understory plant diversity in a sub-tropical forest ecosystem, China. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 14(3): 397-407. [DOI:10.15666/aeer/1403_397407]
30. Lindenmayer, D.B. and R.J. Hobbs. 2004. Fauna conservation in Australian plantation forests: a review. Biological Conservation, 119: 151-168. [DOI:10.1016/j.biocon.2003.10.028]
31. Ludwig, J.A. and J.F. Reynolds. 1988. Statistical ecology. Wiley-Interscience Press, New York, 337pp.
32. Mohammadi, S., R. Rahmani and R. Arabali. 2014. Measuring throughfall and interception loss in Horizontal cypress and Turkish pine Afforestations and a natural stand of chestnut-leaved oak at Kohmian of Azadshahr, Iran. Iranian Journal of Forest, 6(3): 363-376 (In Persian).
33. Mohammadnejad kiasari, Sh., Kh. Sagheb Talebi and R. Rahmani. 2013. Comparison of Plants Diversity in Natural Forest and Afforestations (Case Study: Darabkola, Mazandaran). Journal of Wood and Forest Science and Technology, 19(4): 59-76 (In Persian).
34. Mohammadnejad kiasari, Sh., Kh. Sagheb Talebi and SH. Amini. 2017. Ecological assessment of conifers and broad-leaved plantationsin Neka, Eastern of Mazandaran (Case Study: Ghoremarez Area). Journal of Wood and Forest Science and Technology, 24(4): 173-185 (In Persian).
35. Muller-Dombois, D. and H. Ellenberg. 1974. Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 523 pp.
36. Nagaike, T. 2002. Differences in plant species diversity between conifer (Larix kaempferi) plantations and broad leaved (Quercus crispula) secondary forests in central Japan. Forest Ecology and Management, 168: 111-123. [DOI:10.1016/S0378-1127(01)00734-4]
37. Nagaike, T. 2012. Review of plant species diversity in managed forests in Japan. International Scholarly Research Network, ISRN Forestry, ID 629523, 7 pp. [DOI:10.5402/2012/629523]
38. Nagaike, T., A. Hayashi, A. Abe and N. Arai. 2003. Differences in plant species diversity in Larix kaempferi plantations of different ages in central Japan. Forest Ecology and Management, 183: 177-193. [DOI:10.1016/S0378-1127(03)00105-1]
39. Nouri, Z., J. Feghhi, Gh. Zahedi, M. Zobeiri and R. Rahmani. 2010. The Study of Shrub and Tree Species Diversity and its Application in Forest Planning (Case study: Patom District, Kheyroud Forest). Journal of Forest and Wood Products, 63(2): 201-214 (In Persian).
40. Paritsis, J. and M.A. Aizen. 2007. Effect of exotic conifer plantations on the biodiversity of under-story plants, epigeal beetles and birds in Notofagus dombeyi forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 255: 1575-1583. [DOI:10.1016/j.foreco.2007.11.015]
41. Pourbabaei, H., F. Asghari, A. Reif and R. Abedi. 2012. Effect of plantations on plant species diversity in the Darabkola, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran. Biodiversitas, 13(2): 72-78. [DOI:10.13057/biodiv/d130204]
42. Powers, J.S., J.P. Haggar and R.F. Fisher. 1998. The effect of overstory composition on understory woody regeneration and species richness in 7-years old plantation in Costa Rica. Forest Ecology and Management, 99(3): 43-54. [DOI:10.1016/S0378-1127(97)00193-X]
43. Rostami Shahraji, T. and H. Pourbabaei. 2007. Study of vegetation in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations in the Aziz kian and Lakan areas, Rasht. Journal of Environmental Studies, 33(41): 85-96 (In Persian).
44. Yousefi, A., H. Jalilvand, M.R. Pourmajidian and K. Espahbodi. 2010. Understory indigenous woody species diversity in hardwood and coniferous tree plantations at Berenjestanak lowland forest in the North of Iran. Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, 2: 273-283.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Ecology of Iranian Forest

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb